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About wine

Wine is a beverage which is made from grapes. It comes in alcoholic and non-alcoholic variants. Wine making is a long process and includes fermentation without the addition of sugars, acids, water or enzymes. Grapes are crushed and yeast is used to turn the grape pulp into alcohol.  The earliest known wine was made thousands of years ago and can be traced back to 6000 BC.

There are different types of wines, each with its own differences. The different types of wines are-

  • Red wine- Red wine is made from dark skinned grape by extracting both pulp and sugar from the grapes. The age of the wine can be determined by its color. Violet colored wines are young wines while red wines are the color of more mature wines. There are variations in red wine too- Cabernet Franc which has flavors in violets, blueberry, earth, black olive and coffee; cabernet sauvignon which has bell pepper, green olive, herb, cassis, black cherry flavors; Gamay in strawberry, raspberry and cherry flavors; Grenache in spice and cherry flavors; Malbec in sour cherry and spice flavors; Merlot in watermelon, strawberry, cherry and plum flavors; Mataro in spice and cherry flavors; Nebbiolo in plum, pie cherry and tar flavours; Pinot Noir in tomato leaf, beetroot, pale cherry and blackberry, cola and plum flavors; Sangiovese in pie cherry, anise and tobacco leaf flavors; Syrah in blackberry, boysenberry, plum, pepper and clove flavors and Zinfandel in raspberry, blackberry, black cherry, raisin and prune flavors.
  • White wine- White wine is made from the fermentation of noon-colored grapes or the process of white wine making involves extracting and disposing the color elements of the grape pulp. White wine can be yellow-green, yellow-gold or straw-yellow. The different types of white wine are- Chardonnay in oak, butter and spice, nuts or vanilla flavors; Pinot gris; Sauvignon Blanc or Fume Blanc in lemon, grassy, grapefruit and gooseberry flavors; Viognier in floral flavors; Riesling  with intense mineral, earthy, petrol and floral aromas.


  • Rose wine- This wine incorporates very little color from the grape skin. It is one of the world’s oldest forms of wine. The color of this wine ranges from pale orange to light purple. There are three ways to produce rose wine skin contact which involves allowing dark grapes to stain the wort, saignee which involves removing the juice from the must early and blending.
  • Fruit wines- Wines made from other fruits such as apples and berries are called as fruit wines. Most fruit wines do not usually have fermentable sugars and yeast nutrients to promote the formation of alcohol. Due to this, most fruit wines are usually non-alcoholic wines.
  • Mead or honey wine- This created by fermenting honey along with water and sometimes is mixed with fruits, spices grains or hops.
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