What are festive seasons without a little wine and cake? Wine is prepared during any joyous occasion and is consumed together while fellowshipping with the dear and near ones.
There exist two types of wine. White wine and red wine. When grapes are allowed to ferment along with the skin, the wine takes the colour of the grape skin making it look red. While preparing white wine, the collected grape juice is only allowed to ferment. Winemaking is also referred to as vinification. Wine can be made from fruits other than grapes also. After the grapes are freshly plucked from the vineyard, they are allowed to ferment with or without the skin. Another category of wine is called the rose wine. Here, both white wine and red wine is mixed together. Yeast is the primary agent that causes fermentation to make wine. Yeast is either added to the grape pulp (along with the grape skin) or directly to the grape juice (without the grape skin) to prepare red wine and white wine respectively. The process of fermentation might delay up to two weeks. The yeast converts the sugars present in the grape into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most of the carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. This is why wine is never fizzy. After fermentation, the wine is transferred to big barrels. The wine must be settled well before bottling. Depending on the type of grapes used to prepare wine, some wine will ferment very soon. 10% of red wine and 5% of the white wine is said to be well settled after five years of storing them before bottling. During the process of fermenting, the carbon dioxide gas is not allowed to escape at times. This causes bubble formation inside the bottled wine. This is how champagne is prepared. Now you know why champagne spills out when you shake the bottle before use. Sweet wines are made by preventing fermentation before all the sugar gets converted into alcohol. Here, some amount of residual sugars remain. Sulphur is usually added to avoid the yeast from fermenting the wine.
More than any other factor, the quality of the grapes decides the quality of the wine. On the other hand, the quality of the grapes is determined by the pruning period, type of soil and climate, mineral content and acidity of the soil, etc. The harvest time differs in the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. In the North, the harvesting period is from September to November. In the Southern Hemisphere, it varies from mid-February to late March.
Italy and Germany make the World’s best wine. Spain comes next followed by the U.S and Argentina. Italy and Germany compete with each other to produce the World’s best wine.